Matter is the name for anything that has mass and takes up space. The air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, rocks, clouds, stars, plants, animals, and even a grain of sand are all made up of matter.Due to the space between them, matter particles are attracted to each other.
The first chapter of class 9 chemistry matter in our surroundings. In this chapter students have to read the following topics including Introduction, Physical Nature of Matter, Diffusion, Characteristics of Particles of Matter, States of Matter, Change of State of Matter, Effect of Temperature, Effect of change of pressure, Evaporation, Plasma, and Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Physical Nature of Matter: There are three States of Matter based on the physical basis of matter:
Solid: In Solid matters molecules are packed closely together. They are frequently tough and inflexible.
Liquid: In contrast to the molecules of solids, the molecules of liquids are loosely packed.
Gas: Compared to molecules of liquids, molecules of gases are further apart from one another.
Diffusion: The process of mixing of two or more substances due to the motion or movement of their particles is known as diffusion. It is a characteristic of materials. Diffusion occurs in solids, liquids, and gases.
Characteristics of Particles of Matter: There are three characteristics of matter’s particles: The particles within have space between them, they are continuously moving meaning they are in constant motion, and they attract one another.
States of Matter: Most people are aware with three states of matter which are solids, liquids, and gases. However, plasmas and Bose-Einstein condensates are two other states of matter that are less well-known but equally significant.
Change of State of Matter: Change of states of matter is the process of changing from one state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) to another one without a change in chemical composition. If heated or cooled, matter can transform into a different state. Like when ice (a solid) is heated, it melts and becomes water (a liquid). This process is known as melting. When water is heated, it becomes steam (a gas). This process is known as boiling.
Effect of Temperature: When heat or thermal energy is added to a substance, its temperature rises. This increased kinetic energy causes the particles to vibrate more rapidly. The particles therefore overcome the attraction force between them. Solids into Liquids and then to Gas (with Increase in temperature)
Effect of change of pressure: When we apply pressure, matter particles can be brought closer and closer together. Therefore, solids can be changed into liquids by applying pressure, and liquids can be converted into gases by exerting further pressure.
Evaporation: Evaporation is the transformation of a liquid or solid into a vapour. Surface area, temperature, humidity, and wind speed are all variables that affect evaporation rate. In this chapter you will learn about these things thoroughly,
Plasma: The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is comparable to gas. Plasma particles are composed of free electrons and ions. Plasma has no definite shape or volume until it is contained in a container. It may be defined as a medium of positive and negative particles that is electrically neutral. Plasma is one of the most prevalent forms of matter in the cosmos. Naturally, plasma exists in the stars. Every star is composed of plasma. Due to the presence of plasma, stars emit light. The formation of plasma is the result of nuclear fusion in stars. Plasma causes our sun to radiate light.
Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC): The fifth state of matter is the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). This condition of affairs was anticipated by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein, hence the name Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). Plasma and BEC have contrasting characteristics. Plasma atoms are extremely hot and excited, whereas Condensate atoms are extremely cool and unexcited.
The above subjects are to be addressed in the first chapter of chemistry for 9th grade. Students must cover the entire material in addition to the NCERT tasks. Attend the online classes of Students Panda to answer questions and understand the concepts from the basics.
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